Emma Hoes is a postdoctoral researcher in the ERC Project “Problem Definition in the Digital Democracy” (PRODIGI) and at the Digital Democracy Lab of the University of Zurich. Before joining the IPZ, Emma was a doctoral researcher at the the European University Institute in Florence from 2018 until 2021. Her PhD dissertation enquired into the harm of actual misinformation versus the potential harms of the media’s attention to misinformation. Before her PhD, she obtained a Master in Political Science at the Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB), and a Master in Political Communication at theUniversity of Amsterdam (A SCoR). Her research interests focus on the study of digital media and technology, political communication, public opinion and political psychology.